Chhath Puja

 Chhath Puja is a significant Hindu festival primarily observed in the Indian states of Bihar, Jharkhand, Uttar Pradesh, and certain regions of Nepal. This ancient festival is dedicated to worshipping the Sun God, Surya, and Chhathi Maiya (known as Usha, the wife of Surya), expressing gratitude and seeking blessings for well-being, prosperity, and longevity.

Key Elements of Chhath Puja:

  1. Celebration Duration: Chhath Puja is observed over four days, typically in the months of October or November, according to the Hindu lunar calendar.

  2. Day 1 - Nahay Khay: The first day involves ritual bathing (Nahay) in rivers, ponds, or water bodies. Devotees clean themselves and their surroundings, and a special meal called 'Kharna' is prepared, consumed, and then observed as a fast throughout the day.

  3. Day 2 - Kharna: Devotees observe a strict fast without water for the entire day. In the evening, after offering prayers to the Sun, they prepare kheer (sweet rice pudding) and fruits to break their fast after sunset, known as Kharna.

  4. Day 3 - Sandhya Arghya (Evening Offering): Devotees visit a water body, usually a river or a pond, during the evening to offer 'Arghya' (offerings) to the setting sun. The offerings consist of fruits, sugarcane, and homemade sweets. They stand in the water while offering prayers to the setting sun.

  5. Day 4 - Usha Arghya (Morning Offering): On the final day, devotees gather at the riverbank before sunrise to offer 'Arghya' to the rising sun. This is considered the most important aspect of the Chhath Puja, and the rising sun is worshipped for its life-giving properties.

Rituals and Observances:

  • Fasting and Purity: Devotees maintain purity during the Chhath Puja rituals, often observing fasts, cleanliness, and following specific dietary restrictions.

  • Chhath Songs and Mantras: Traditional Chhath Puja songs and mantras dedicated to the Sun God are sung during the rituals, reflecting devotion and gratitude.

  • Cultural Celebrations: The festival is characterized by a rich cultural heritage, including traditional attire, folk dances, and vibrant gatherings along riverbanks during the sunrise and sunset rituals.


  • Chhath Puja is considered a way to express gratitude to the Sun God, who sustains life on earth, and seek blessings for the well-being, prosperity, and happiness of family members.

  • It is believed to cleanse the mind, body, and soul and is considered highly auspicious and spiritually uplifting.

Chhath Puja is not just a religious festival but also a celebration of nature, culture, and community bonding, embodying reverence for the Sun and its life-sustaining energy.