World Pneumonia Day

 Every year on November 12, there is a celebration called World Pneumonia Day to increase awareness of the illness. Here is all the information you require on the signs, causes, and remedies for pneumonia.


World Pneumonia Day: Pneumonia, an acute respiratory infection frequently brought on by a virus or bacteria, is the leading infectious cause of death in both adults and children, killing 2.5 million people worldwide in 2018, including 6,72,000 children. The current spike in Covid pneumonia infections is anticipated to dramatically increase the overall number of pneumonia-related mortality.

Every year on November 12, there is a celebration called World Pneumonia Day to increase awareness of the illness.


The burden of pneumonia in India is 23% of the global total, and case fatality rates range from 14% to 30%.

It continues to be the greatest cause of death in children worldwide, with India accounting for 20% of those deaths and having the highest prevalence of paediatric pneumonia of any nation.

More information regarding the many varieties of pneumonia, their origins, symptoms, prevention, and treatment is provided by Dr. Viswesvaran Balasubramanian, Consultant Interventional Pulmonology and Sleep Medicine, Yashoda Hospitals Hyderabad.


What is Pneumonia?

Pneumonia is the medical term for any illness that results in an inflammatory response in the lungs. Even though bacterial illnesses account for the bulk of pneumonia cases, viral infections like influenza or the COVID-19 virus can also affect the lungs and seriously harm them through inflammation, as the ongoing pandemic has shown.

Causes of Pneumonia

In India, tuberculosis is still a prominent factor in pneumonia, especially in low-income individuals and those with weakened immune systems. It has been noted that persons who smoke, who have a history of drinking or using other illegal drugs, or who have underlying chronic respiratory disorders like COPD have a higher risk of pneumonia.

Other factors that can cause pneumonia

1) inadequate dietary intake, particularly in children

2) improper ventilation in work or residence

3) underlying immunodeficiency illnesses, such as HIV, present

4) those who use steroids or other immunosuppressant drugs for autoimmune diseases or organ transplants

5) People with uncontrolled diabetes are more likely to develop pneumonia.

Symptoms of Pneumonia

1) Most pneumonia patients typically have a high-grade fever with or without chills.

2) They can cough up phlegm that is yellow or green in color.

3) They might feel out of breath.

4) A small percentage of patients may also have chest pain, sporadic bloody coughing, or appetite loss.

5) Patients with serious conditions may also get bloodstream infections and perhaps need a sophisticated life support system.


The majority of pneumonia cases can be identified with a straightforward chest X-ray and routine blood tests, but a small number of patients may need a chest CT scan to rule out unusual pneumonia-related symptoms or consequences.

To determine the cause of pneumonia, further tests including sputum analyses are typically requested.

Recently, the development of rapid molecular assays like RT PCR has been used to make accurate diagnoses with a high degree of certainty.

To make an accurate etiological diagnosis, patients are occasionally subjected to invasive procedures like bronchoscopy. The key to treating this type of pneumonia is to start the right medications as soon as possible along with other supportive care.


Preventing Pneumonia

Adhering to timely immunization schedules, especially among high-risk groups, is one efficient strategy to avoid the occurrence of pneumonia. It has been demonstrated that several adult vaccines, including those for influenza and pneumococcal, are effective in lowering the prevalence and severity of bacterial pneumonia in adults.

It is essential to ensure appropriate COVID-19 vaccination given the ongoing pandemic.

Other lifestyle changes might reduce the risk of contracting pneumonia, such as quitting smoking and drinking, eating right, getting regular exercise, avoiding crowding, and managing blood sugar levels appropriately in diabetic individuals.