National Law Day

Every year on November 26, India celebrates Constitution Day, also known as Samvidhan Divas or National Law Day.


Why is the Constitution Day celebrated?


The Constituent Assembly of India formally adopted the Indian Constitution on November 26, 1949. It becomes effective on January 26, 1950. Constitution Day attempts to raise awareness about the Constitution and Dr. B R Ambedkar.


Who started the Constitution Day?


In 2015, Prime Minister Narendra Modi declared November 26 to be India's Constitution Day.

What is the Constitution of India?


The Constitution of India is a set of written principles and precedents established by the Indian government. It establishes the essential political principles, methods, rights, directive principles, constraints, and duties of the government and its citizens. The Indian Constitution defines the country to be a sovereign, secular, socialist, and democratic republic. It guarantees equality, liberty, and justice to its citizens.


Who wrote the Constitution of India?


The chairman of the drafting committee, B R Ambedkar, is widely regarded as the principal architect of the Indian Constitution. He is also referred to as the "Father of the Indian Constitution." Members of India's Constituent Assembly drafted the country's constitution.


What is the preamble to the Constitution of India?


The preamble is a brief statement that records the people of India's goals and ambitions. The preamble of the Indian Constitution reads:


“We, the people of India, having solemnly resolved to constitute India into a sovereign, socialist, secular, democratic, republic, and to secure to all its citizens:


Justice, social, economic and political; liberty of thought, expression, belief, faith and worship; equality of status and of opportunity, and to promote among them all — fraternity assuring the dignity of the individual and the unity and integrity of the Nation;


In our Constituent Assembly this twenty-sixth day of November, 1949, do hereby adopt, enact and give to ourselves this constitution.”


How did the Constitution of India come into being?


From 1947 to 1950, India maintained the legislation in place when it was a British dominion. Meanwhile, the Constituent Assembly wrote the Indian Constitution, which would replace the Government of India Act of 1935 as the country's main governing document. The Constitution was drafted using a variety of sources, with India's needs and conditions taking precedence. Before writing the Indian Constitution, B R Ambedkar researched the constitutions of over 60 countries.


A brief timeline: 


The Constitution Assembly was established on December 6, 1949, and its first meeting was conducted on December 9, 1949. Rajendra Prasad was named President, and H C Mukherjee was named Vice-Chairman. On August 29, 1947, Ambedkar was designated head of the drafting committee, along with six other members: Munshi N Gopalaswami Ayyangar, Khaitan, Mitter, Muhammed Sadulla, and Alladi Krishnaswami Iyer. On January 24, 1950, members of the Constituent Assembly signed two handwritten versions of the document (one in Hindi and one in English). The Assembly enacted the Indian Constitution on November 26, 1949. The Constitution went into effect on January 26, 1950.

The constitution took nearly three years to write.